martes, 11 de noviembre de 2014

TESLA AND RADIO by Zorica Civric


Publico este artículo tal como me lo envía la Doctora Civric, con la pretensión de acabar con la polémica sobre la importancia de Tesla en el descubrimiento de la transmisión radiofónica.

ZORICA CIVRIC, is an international personality in the area of the spreading and the study of Nikola Tesla's legacy. Electrical engineer of formation, exercised of curator in the Museum Nikola Tesla of Belgrade, for years, she joined the labor constant and deep study of the legacy. Now he is a chief of electrical department and senior curator in the Museum Of the Science and the Technology of Belgrade, continues like it never activates in the tasks of work and investigation. Stands out his global, unitary and humanist approach of the knowledge and the problems of develop worldwide. She is an authoress of numerous books, inexcusable in NT's bibliography and his name is synonymous of rigor, tidiness and merit.
We met personally during my visit to Belgrade in 2009.

 ZORICA CIVRIC, es una personalidad internacional en el ámbito de la divulgación y el estudio del legado de Nikola Tesla. Ingeniero eléctrico de formación, ejerció de conservadora en el Museo Nikola Tesla de Belgrado, durante años, unió la labor conferenciante al estudio constante y profundo del legado. Ahora es jefe de departamento y conservador jefe del Museo De la Ciencia y la Técnica de Belgrado, sigue como nunca activa en las tareas de trabajo e investigación. Destaca su enfoque global ,unitario y humanista del conocimiento y los problemas de sostenibilidad y desarrollo a nivel mundial. Es autora de numerosos libros, inexcusables en una bibliografía de NT y su nombre es sinónimo de rigor, pulcritud y mérito.
Nos conocimos personalmente en mi visita a Belgrado en 2009.

En este artículo la autora aporta datos concretos, objetivos y claros sobre la importancia de NT en el desarrollo e invención de la radio, quedando claro que sin sus patentes no hubiese podido producirse la de Marconi.

Nikola Tesla is undoubtedly known as inventor of rotating magnetic filed and polyphase AC currents. Apart from that, he contributed by his practical and theoretical works, in the field of generating and using of high frequency AC currents, in establishing whole range of  new techniques amongst the most prominent one, is for sure radio technique.
It is generally accepted that Hertz Heinrich Rudolph (1857-1894) was the first scientist who worked on trying to invent method and apparatus for wireless transmission. In 1887 he published experimental proof of Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetic waves. His work was foundation for future development of radio.
From the historical point of view development of radio can be divided in two phases.
In the first phase of development, apparatus based on Hertz’s apparatus was used. First transmitted messages by radio waves were impulses grouped in code symbols. Tesla, Marconi, Popov, Slabi, Braun worked on improvement of Hertz’s apparatuses in the early stage of radio development.
Tesla’s studying of high frequency currents that he started in 1890 marked second phase in radio development that meant theoretical and practical improvements. This phase was characterized by application of continual AC current for wireless transmission and application of resonance providing possibility of sending and receiving selective messages, increase of sensitivity of receiver and transmission of continual message.      
In his lecture delivered before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at Columbia College, N.Y. May 20, 1891 Experiments with Alternate Currents of Very High Frequency and Their Application to Methods of Artificial Illumination Tesla announced possibility of practical realization of wireless transmission of energy.
During 1892 encouraged by success that he had in London and Paris where he gave lecture the same year about results reached in the field of high frequency currents, he invented apparatus that has been from that time part of every radio receiver and transmitter. Apparatus consisted of “Tesla transformer – Tesla Coil”. From this time term “Tesla Coil” was accepted in America as well as in Europe.
In his lecture On Light and Other High Frequency Phenomena delivered before the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia on February 24, 1893   and before National Electric Light Association St. Louis, on March 1, 1893 Tesla explained his basic plan of radio technique. Explaining principle that radio receiver must be tuned to the transmitters frequency, Tesla established basic concept of complete radio techniques.
In mentioned lecture he was first to give public explanation of transmitter with continual AC currents for exciting aerial-earth system as well as explanation of using resonance for effective transmission of energy between synchronized  transmitter and receiver.
In coming years Tesla worked on solving problem of resonance and resonant circuits and he founded methods of tuning circuits to the defined frequency by the means of coils of variable inductivity and condensers with variable capacity.
Till September 1897 Tesla did not file his patents only in September 2, he field two patent applications that he was granted in 1900. Those patents had the decisive importance in defining priority in radio.
In his patent no. 649.621 Apparatus for Transmission of  Electrical Energy that was granted on February 19, 1900, Tesla defines radio and points out  that the total length of antenna and coil conductor should be  approximately one –quarter of the wave length long at the operating frequency.
In his patent no. 645.576 System of Transmission of Electrical Energy granted in March 1900 four tuned circuit system tuned to the same frequency as the system of receiving and transmitting antenna was protected.
Beside Nikola Tesla, by the end of XIX century, Guglielmo Marchese Marconi (1874-1937), John Stone (1869-1943) and Sir Oliver Lodge (1851-1940) intensively worked in the field of radio techniques. In the course of two years preceding Tesla’s filing of patent application, public attention attracted Guglielmo Marconi who already in 1895 sent long wave signal at the distance over one mile long and by this publicly demonstrated radio telegraphy. In 1896 in England he patented previously shown system. In 1899 Marconi sent a signal over British Channel and in 1901 he received at Newfoundland signal without wires that he had sent from his laboratory in Cornwall. Those achievements of Guglielmo Marconi pushed aside credits of his predecessors and contemporaries and influenced wider public to assign merits concerning radio to him.

In numerous addressing to the press Tesla insisted on and asked for his right for inventing radio. Polemics concerning priority were only topics in the newspapers until 1916 when Marconi Wireless Telegraphy Company of America in front of the Supreme Court of America filed claim for damage with explanation that USA during the First World War used wireless devices and by that infringed Marconi’s patent no. 763.772  of June 28,1904 for improvement in apparatus for wireless telegraphy.
To be granted this patent Marconi waited for four years  (patent filed in November 10,1900). USA Patent Examiner had been rejecting application  recalling on previous state of techniques and works of Tesla, Lodge, Stone, Braun and Mihailo Pupin. Upon renewal of patent application, patent was granted in 1904.
In the Court trial lawyers of the Government of USA disputed request of Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America with justification that used apparatus are based on Tesla’s patents (no. 649.621 and no. 645.576) defining apparatus and system of radio, patent of John Stone that covered greater selectivity of tuned circuits (no.714.756 of 2.12.1902) and patent of Oliver Dodge providing tuning of variable inductivity (no. 609.154 of 16.8.1989).
          Dispute was concluded in October 1943 when the Court definitely disputed priority of Marconi’s patent assigning to Tesla priority in defining apparatuses comprising of four tuned circuits that actually present the essential concept that radio transmission is founded on.
          Result of this verdict that was brought after Tesla’s and Marconi’s death haven’t changed to a great extent judgment of professional public who till today assigns basic concepts of radio to Marconi. The reason for this could be the fact that the dispute was settled when the matter of priority was not actual any more. Apart from that, general attention of the public and media who followed topic of priority was directed towards Second World War. The Actors of this dispute who could by their endeavors influence forming of professional opinion hadn’t lived enough for the verdict.         

Esto es la traducción de la parte que hace referencia al tema Tesla-radio que me envió Zorica Civric y que he traducido para general conocimiento esperando que de una vez por todas no tenga que seguir explicando lo mismo a testarudos, cientifistas ni idólatras.

......En numerosos comunicados dirigiéndose a la prensa Tesla insistió en  sus derecho en la invención de la radio. La polémica sobre la prioridad eran sólo temas en los periódicos hasta 1916 cuando Marconi Wireless Telegrafía Company of America en frente de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Estados Unidos presentó una demanda por daños con la explicación de que EE.UU. durante la Primera Guerra Mundial utilizó dispositivos inalámbricos y por que ha infringido la patente de Marconi no. 763.772 de junio 28,1904 de mejora en un aparato para la telegrafía sin hilos. Para que se le concediese  esta patente Marconi tuvo que esperar durante cuatro años (patente presentada en noviembre 10,1900). El Examinador de Patentes  la había estado rechazando aduciendo la aplicación  de técnicas y trabajos anteriores de Tesla, Lodge, Piedra, Braun y Mihailo Pupin. Tras la renovación de la solicitud de patente, se le concedió, no obstante,  en 1904. Los abogados litigantes de la Corte del Gobierno de EE.UU. en la querella de Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America,  justificaron su postura aduciendo  que utiliza aparatos se basan en las patentes de Tesla (n. ° 649.621 y no. 645.576) que define un aparato y sistema de radio, la patente de John Stone que cubre una mayor selectividad de los circuitos sintonizados (no.714.756 de 12.02.1902) y la patente de Oliver regate proporcionar sintonización de inductancia variable (. no 609.154 de 16.8.1989).        

La disputa concluyó en octubre de 1943 cuando el tribunal de la Corte  falla y dicta la prioridad definitiva  de patente  a Tesla en la definición de los aparatos que comprenden de cuatro circuitos sintonizados que realmente presentan el concepto esencial de la transmisión en los que se basa la radio.    

    El resultado de este veredicto es que, aun así ,después de la muerte deTesla y de Marconi no ha cambiado en gran medida el juicio de público profesional que hasta hoy asigna conceptos básicos de la radio a Marconi. La razón de esto podría ser el hecho de que la disputa se resolvió muy tarde, cuando ya no era fácil restituir el troquel. Aparte de eso, la atención general del público y los medios de comunicación que siguieron  el tema se dirigen al evento de actualidad de  la la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los testigos vivos de la época habían ido muriéndose y ellos eran los que podrían haber influido en la formación de la opinión profesional , pero no habían vivido lo suficiente para ver el veredicto.

3 comentarios:

  1. Lamentablemente, a veces ocurre esto: " Los testigos vivos de la época habían ido muriéndose y ellos eran los que podrían haber influido en la formación de la opinión profesional , pero no habían vivido lo suficiente para ver el veredicto.". Me alegro David que conozcas en persona a esta Doctora, eso sí que no tiene precio.

  2. Se echa de menos tus escritos, David, esperamos con ilusión a que nos pueda sorprender de nuevo.

    Saludos Cordiales. Teresa.

    1. Agradezco tu interés, Teresa. Cuando tenga algo que contar, y ganas de escribirlo, lo haré de inmediato, lo que está claro es que tus palabras contribuyen a ello.

      Un saludo afectuoso.


Colores y formas

Gracián aseveró que según el color la forma cambia, o si se quiere que esta depende de aquel, pues según se mire se verá. No es mi deseo aho...